## Gravity by Diffusion of Continuum

### Gravity by Diffusion of Continuum

Executive Summary
This new treatment of gravity uses a diffusion law like Fick's Law to explain why masses are forced together. Space is shrinking and time is growing from atoms in a way that can diffuse a comet towards a planet.

Summary of Rev. 124
A new ether is defined relative to atoms. The new ether is the usual four dimensional spacetime continuum with additional articulated immaterial properties. It is called Herenowium (pronounced "here and now ee um"). The Herenowium is not a position ether, it is a velocity ether that is dense near atoms, and has an inverse square law for its concentration. The simultaneous diffusion from time growth and diffusion from space shrinkage provide the power of two in the resulting formulae. This is a continuation of the previous essays called "Quantum Gravity Theory" and "Gravity and Time Relationships".

Details of Atoms
The quantum gravity effects of atoms on the space-time continuum (Herenowium) are attributed to quarks and electrons. But only hadrons will be considered in this essay.

Sum of hadron shell volumes for Earth 1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters
Sum of hadron shell areas for Earth 4.5 x 10^22 square meters

The shrinking space makes a gradient and the growing time puts a second gradient into the comet's frame of reference. Those two gradients cause diffusion of Herenowium with a power of two in its formula. A comet is in free fall relative to the Herenowium and it accelerates if the local Herenowium accelerates.

Details of Herenowium
According to this proposal, protons, neutrons, and electrons have gravity because they shrink space and grow time. How much shrinkage and growth occurs was not known yesterday (December 10, 2014), but a first calculation is done today to propose some formulae and values. This calculation will use the following placeholder values:

Each hadron shrinks the surrounding space by a fraction of a proton volume every time period t1. The fraction is called f.

As a first guess use t1 as much longer than a Planck time:
t1 = 5.5 x 10^-9 sec
f = 1

t1 was chosen as 5.5 nanoseconds so a mass that is released from 300 km above Earth will cross a distance of 5 meters in 1 second by diffusion of space-time continuum.

Time is advancing as we experience it. This t1 can be set to any value
to adjust the gravity result, but people always experience time as it seems today. Time is growing from atoms.

Background Calculations
Earth’s number of protons and neutrons is 3.5 x 10^51 (Aluminum)
Proton volume 4 x 10^-45 cubic meters
Sum of proton shell areas for Earth 4.5 x 10^22 square meters
Sum of proton shell volumes for Earth 1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters

Meteor shell volume while falling one second is calculated here:
Distance fallen in 1 second is 5 meters
Volume of top orbit: (6451005 meters)^3 x 4pi/3 = V1
Volume of bottom.... (6451000 meters)^3 x 4pi/3 = V2
V1 - V2 = shell volume used by meteor in one second
V1 = 41615465510025 x 6451005 x 4.19
V1 = 1124854003785670077273
V2 = 1124851388255690000000
V1-V2 = 2,615,529,980,077,273 cubic meters
V1 - V2 = 2.615 *10^15 cubic meters

Ratio B of shell volumes, proton over meteor shell volumes

B = (1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters)/(2.615 *10^15 cubic meters per second)
B = 5.5 nanoseconds

Discussion
This work is still in progress, but here is a rough draft. This theory is used to evaluate a diffusion model of gravity starting with this action:

Every 5.5 nanoseconds, the space around each hadron shrinks by a hadron volume as time grows by 5.5 nanoseconds.

The Earth's hadrons consume Herenowium and a nearby comet will accelerate at the expected rate. A far comet will have less acceleration. Each comet is in free fall relative to the local Herenowium.

The diffusion occurs as in Fick's Law. A gradient in space density is caused by atoms shrinking space. A gradient in time density happens because time is growing from atoms. Time is densest near atoms, and less dense far away. Those two density gradients cause a flux of Herenowium to accelerate. The power of two in the gravitational force equation is due to the two diffusion effects as time grows and as space shrinks.

Here is a calculation showing a case where hadron processing of spacetime produces a result that is equal to that provided by the acceleration of a mass above the Earth:

(1.4 x 10^7 cubic meters)/5.5 nanoseconds = (2.615 *10^15 cubic meters per second)

Conclusion
More to come:
Diffusion equation for Herenowium.
Derive G, the gravitational constant, from this theory.
Conservation of spacetime where 5.5 nanoseconds balances against a proton volume.
muon200

Posts: 67
Joined: Fri Sep 12, 2014 1:53 pm
Location: Maui Island, Pacific Ocean

### Re: Gravity by Diffusion of Continuum

How much space did the universe shrink by during 14 billion years according to this gravity diffusion theory?

Begin with the balance of Herenowium :
5.5 nanoseconds :: 4 x 10^-45 cubic meters per hadron

Assume there are 10^90 hadrons in the known universe.

Total hadron volume in the universe
4*10^(90-45) cubic meter = 4x10^45 cubic meters

The volume consumed per second :
4x10^45 cubic meters/5.5x10^-9 s = 10^54 cubic meters per s

Number of seconds in 14 billion years is t :
t = 1.4x10^10 x 60 x 60 x 24 x 365 = 4.4x10^17 sec

Volume consumed in 14 billion years = v:
v = 4.4x10^(17+54) = 4.4x10^71 cubic meters
v = 4/3 pi x r^3

3/4pi = .24
r1 = cube root (.24*4.4*10^71) = 2x10^24 meters

radius of universe (14 billion Light Years) in meters = r2
1.4x10^10 LY x 10^15 m/LY) = 1.4x10^25 meters = r2

Conclusion
r1 ~= r2
The radius decrease by gravity is the same size as the radius that can be observed of the universe.
2x10^24 meters shrinkage ~= 1.4x10^25 meters observed !

Is this a coincidence? My theory claims : no. During 14 billion years, space has shrunk by the same volume as is observable of the universe. The meaning of this equality will be pondered tomorrow.

Highlighted again :
The 14 billion light year radius of the universe is equal to the 14 billion light years of space shrunk by hadrons in the new theory.
muon200

Posts: 67
Joined: Fri Sep 12, 2014 1:53 pm
Location: Maui Island, Pacific Ocean